Sep 28, 2023

Chain Insights - Analyzing Ethereum One Year Post-Merge

One of the most significant events in the crypto-sphere over the past year was Ethereum's transition from proof of work (PoW) to proof of stake (PoS). Dubbed "The Merge," this monumental change in consensus mechanisms caused a ripple effect that was felt across the ecosystem. Continue reading as we explore the groundbreaking impacts of the merge, decentralization challenges in the new staking era, Ethereum's scalability journey, and the looming shadows of regulation.

The Transformative Effects of the Merge

Energy and Environment:

Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact: Prior to the merge, Ethereum used the same consensus mechanism as Bitcoin: PoW. This approach required massive amounts of energy, as miners solved complicated mathematical equations to validate transactions. Post-merge, Ethereum's transition to PoS resulted in a staggering 99.99% reduction in energy consumption, according to the Crypto Carbon Ratings Institute. This monumental shift essentially addressed and silenced major environmental criticisms that once overshadowed Ethereum's technological achievements.

Beyond Environmental Benefits: The reduced carbon footprint is not just a nod to environmental concerns; it's also a strategic maneuver to garner positive sentiment and attract environmentally-conscious investors and developers to the platform.

Price Dynamics and Staking Surge:

Price Stability and Staking: A glance at Ethereum's price over the past year might suggest a steady state, with ETH trading around the $1,600 mark pre and post-merge. But beneath this stability, there’s been a dynamic change in terms of Ethereum’s utility. The amount of Ethereum staked post-merge nearly doubled, signaling increased faith and engagement from investors.

Decentralization Concerns in the Staking Era

The Liquid Staking Dilemma:

Liquid staking is an innovative solution within the blockchain space, specifically tailored for investors who wish to remain liquid while participating in the staking process. Traditionally, staking involves locking up a certain amount of cryptocurrency to support the operations of a blockchain network. This "locked" cryptocurrency cannot be easily accessed or sold, which can be a drawback for some investors. Liquid staking addresses this concern by offering investors a representative token in return for their staked assets. This token can be traded, sold, or used as collateral, thereby providing liquidity to the investor.

A Double-Edged Sword:

While the concept sounds attractive, it comes with its own set of challenges. On the one hand, liquid staking grants investors the flexibility they desire, allowing them to remain fluid and agile with their investments. On the other hand, it introduces potential centralization risks to the blockchain network, a platform that is fundamentally built on the principles of decentralization.

Centralization Concerns:

When investors opt for liquid staking solutions offered by specific platforms, these platforms in essence become responsible for staking a large amount of the underlying cryptocurrency. As more investors use a particular platform for liquid staking, the platform accumulates more staked assets, inadvertently turning it into a significant power center within the network. This concentration of staked assets can lead to a few platforms or entities having disproportionate influence over the network, challenging the core decentralized ethos of blockchain.

The Lido Scenario:

Too Big to Ignore: Lido, a major player in liquid staking, now accounts for 32% of all staked Ethereum. While Lido has been transparent and community-driven, its dominance raises crucial questions about power distribution in the new Ethereum landscape.

Scaling Towards a Faster Future

While the merge brought several benefits, it did not address Ethereum's scalability in terms of transaction speeds:

Transaction Speed Limitations: Ethereum’s low TPS post-merge was a bottleneck waiting to be addressed. After the merge, Ethereum's average transactions per second (TPS) remained in the teens. This limitation was not unexpected, as the merge's main goal was the transition to PoS, not speed enhancement.

Promising Upgrades with "Dencun" and Proto-Danksharding: Ethereum developers are acutely aware of the scalability issues. The upcoming "Dencun" upgrade, accompanied by the introduction of proto-danksharding, promises to scale Ethereum to over 100,000 TPS. This prospective change will exponentially elevate Ethereum’s utility and responsiveness.

Institutional Engagement and Regulatory Shadows

Barriers to Broader Institutional Engagement:

A year after Ethereum's significant transition to a proof-of-stake consensus model, the ecosystem still confronts a series of challenges regarding broader institutional adoption of ether staking. Despite a visible growth in ETH staking, regulatory ambiguities and the overarching economic climate keep numerous institutions at bay. The dominant engagement in the post-Merge ether adoption landscape hails from individual investors, overshadowing institutional participation.

The Regulatory Matrix:

The U.S. regulatory dynamics pose a significant hurdle. Several crypto exchanges, including Bitstamp, have had to adjust their staking services due to these regulatory pressures, emphasizing the need for clearer regulatory frameworks, especially in staking contexts. The Securities and Exchange Commission's targeting of notable staking services underlines this urgency. Beyond regulation, the macroeconomic environment, such as interest rate hikes, drives some traditional investors towards more conventional and familiar terrains.

Ethereum's Institutional Promise:

Despite the present-day challenges surrounding demand, the staking surge illustrates Ethereum's "productivity as an asset". This means that Ethereum isn't just a static store of value or a speculative token. Instead, by staking, users actively participate in the network's consensus mechanism, which helps validate transactions and secure the system. This dynamic feature makes Ethereum not only a digital asset but also an investment tool that can generate additional value over time, highlighting its multifaceted productivity in the digital ecosystem. As Ethereum evolves and the ecosystem matures, it's anticipated that clearer regulations and a broader understanding of Ethereum's potential will pave the way for more significant institutional engagement.

Final Thoughts

Post-merge, Ethereum stands as a testament to technological innovation in the blockchain realm. It has navigated environmental concerns, centralization debates, and scalability issues with agility. Yet, the pathway to broader institutional adoption is riddled with complexities, predominantly regulatory uncertainties. As Ethereum continues its journey, striking a balance between innovation, user engagement, and regulatory compliance will be pivotal. The crypto community and stakeholders eagerly anticipate how Ethereum will maneuver these challenges, as it continues to shape and define the blockchain narrative.

Disclaimer: For Educational Purposes Only

The information provided herein is intended solely for educational purposes and does not constitute professional, financial, legal, or any other form of advice or recommendation. All content is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. Readers are advised to seek the counsel of appropriate professionals before making any decisions based on the content herein. The author(s) and publisher disclaim any and all liability relating to or resulting from the use of the information provided in this material.


  1. Omkar Godbole. "A Year After Ethereum Merge, Net Supply Down Nearly 300k Ether." CoinDesk, September 15, 2023, Source
  2. André Beganski. "One Year After the Merge: Where Does Ethereum Stand?" Decrypt, September 15, 2023, Source
  3. Ben Strack. "Ethereum Merge: One Year." Blockworks, September 15, 2023, Source

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